Digging know how

Dig is one of the most important tools that every sysop uses in day-to-day work. It gives us the possibility to trace resolving path of domains, checking status of domain records or even getting whole definitions of records for a particular domain (under some circumstances…). We won’t write here an essay about DNS and it’s functionality – You san always read it here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domain_Name_System or even better, here: https://webhostinggeeks.com/guides/dns/

Assuming, that You ave already dig installed (if not – try yum install bind-utils on CentOs or whatever else on different distros) We can start with explaining how to use properly dig.

1. Simple query

Let’s check Gamedesire’s domain www.gamedesire.com:

Above We can see a bunch of data.. “status: NOERROR” is answer status – NOERROR means, that query was resolved properly. ANSWER SECTION contains of information about resolved records (here We can see 2 A records for www.gamedesire.com: and Next We have AUTHORITY SECTION which gives us an answer to the question: “what are the authoritative DNS servers for this domain?”. We have also some statistic data (query time, ADDITIONAL SECTION with DNS servers info etc). And remember to check answer flags (in above example: qr rd ra). You can find explanation of those in RFC 1035 §4.1.1..

What happens when domain name is not resolved properly? Let’s try with non-existing sysop.gamedesire.com:

As we can see the answer status is NXDOMAIN here – it means NoneXistingDomain.

2. Querying specific records

There are plenty of DNS record types. Most commonly used are A, MX, TXT and CNAME. Here is the explanation and complete list of those types: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_DNS_record_types. So now – how can We query for a MX domain?

So We see above in ANSWER SECTION all found MX records. We can ask for any record type with this method.

3. Tracing DNS query

Every DNS query takes some hierarchical steps. Knowing those could be very helpful under some circumstances:

We see above all the DNS query steps – first question to the root servers for a proper TLD DNS server (org), next the question to the TLD org’s server for a proper wikipedia.org NS servers, and then the question to the wikipedia’s NS servers for a resolution to the name ‘wikipedia.org’ which appears to be a CNAMEs for something more…

4. Shortening the output

Digging is a quite verbose action – by design – much verbosity is good for debugging purposes. It’s good to know how can We reduce output of this command – for example when We would like to wrap dig command with some monitoring script. For this purpose I suggest to get known with:

Let’s try with the strongest one from above – +short will reduce all the dig’s “noise”:

We can join +short with eg. “+trace”:

You can try Yourself with other params.

5. Asking specific DNS server

It is very good practice during checking DNS resolutions (especially while transferring domains etc) to ask query to a couple of DNS servers. We can ask particular DNS server (but only when this server allows us to do so). Remember that by default dig uses DNSes listed in Your /etc/resolv.conf file. Let’s try to ask google’s DNSes first:

And now some ThePlanet’s:

6. The authority

In this example:

We can see, that AA bit is set here (flags: qr aa rd). So ns1.theplanet.com is authoritative for gamedesire.com domain (as in AUTHORITY section). Now let’s try to dig it again using some other DNS server:

Here We can see, that there is no AA bit set, and also TTL values are lower than 86400 for www.gamedesire.com (We can see 19128 value). Why is that? Because this answer is cached somewhere in the middle and our current DNS server is not authorative for gamedesire.com . If We would repeat this query this TTL value would be dropping every each question. We can’t tell looking at above dig output where this query was cached – to know this We would have to repeat the query with recursion disabled and step manually through all the DNS tree (but in 9/10 cases It will be You local DNS cache… which is caching answers).

7. Tracing DIG execution

As I wrote above We can set +trace param using dig to trace resolving path in the DNS tree. But how can We trace what exact queries are sent and received? Surely with tcpdump:

From the tcpdump(8) manpage: Name server requests are formatted as:

I rather suggest reading this manpages Yourself – just look for “UDP Name Server Requests” section.